Nutritive Value and the Quality of Ensiled Napier Grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) and Banana (Musa acuminata) Peelings

Sangle Y Randa, Marlyn N Lekitoo, Deny A Iyai, Freddy Pattiselanno


This paper aimed to evaluate the nutritive value and the quality of ensiled Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum) and banana (Musa acuminate) peelings.  Different levels of banana peeling and Napier grass were used in this study.  The levels of Napier grass and banana peeling compared as treatments with four replications were as follows: 100% Napier Grass (NG), 75% (NG) + 25% Banana Peeling (BP), 50%NG + 50%BP, 25%NG + 75% BP and 100%BP. Napier grass and banana peeling were mixed based on the percentage combination as treatments, weighed and placed into empty jam bottle with weights ranging from 64.4 grams to 509.2 grams as a simulated laboratory silo. Samples were stored in eight weeks at the Dairy Training Research Institute. Proximate analyses were done at Animal Nutrition Laboratory Institute of Animal Science while ADF, NDF, IVDMD, and IVOMD were done at the Animal Nutrition Division Laboratory at Dairy Training and Research Institute, UP Los Baños. Physically, the color of silage were light yellow with a  little greenish color for 100% napier grass, light to moderately yellow for the  three combinations of napier and banana peel and  yellow for 100% banana peel. Texture ranged from dry and coarse for napier grass, relatively dry for the combinations and moderately wet for the banana peel. The napier grass had a slightly acidic smell, the combinations had slightly sweet, acidic smell while the 100% banana peel had a sweeter, acidic smell.  Likewise, pH before ensiling had ranged from 5.7 (25%NG + 75%BP) to 7.5 ( 100% BP) while after  ensiling the pH changed from 4.575  ( 100% napier grass) to 5.75 ( 100% banana peel ). There were significant differences on DM, Moisture, CP, EE, CF, and Ash before ensiling. Similar trend was observed after ensiling except the ash content of all the treatments. ADF and NDF did not show significant variations in all treatments. IVDMD and IVOMD before ensiling varied significantly, but after ensiling only IVDMD of the treatments differed significantly. In terms of physical attributes, nutritive value and digestibility, banana peel can be used as silage material. All treatments generated comparable acceptability when fed to the animal.  It is suggested that further study, specifically in vivo trial, will be conducted to validate the feeding and nutritional value of banana peel as alternative silage for ruminants.

Full Text:



AOAC, 1990.Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Analytical Chemist, 16th ed. Assciation of Official Analytical Chemist. Arlington, VA, U.S.A

Bolsen, K.K., G. Ashbell and Z.G. Weinberg. 1996. Silage fermentation and silage additives. A review. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 9 (5):483-493

Bureenok, S., Yuangklang, C., Vasupen, K., Schonewille, J.T., Kawamoto, Y. 2012. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 25(9): 1248-1254. doi:

Del Barrio, A., B. A. Oliveros, R. M. Lapitan, and T. S. Lihat. 1998. Yield, chemical composition and In-vitro Dry Matter Digestibility of different forage grasses. Phil. J. of Vet. & Animal Science. 24(384):79-87

Desta, S.T., Yuan, X.J., Li, J., Shao, T. 2016. Ensiling characteristics, structural and non-structural carbohydrate composition and enzymatic digestibility of Napier grass ensiled with additives. Bioresource Technology 221, 447-454.

Fukugawa, S., Ishii, Y., Hattori, I. 2016. Fermentation quality of round-bale silage as affected by additives and ensiling seasons in Dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach). Agronomy 6, 48:1-10. doi:10.3390/agronomy6040048

Grant R. and R. Stock. 1996. Harvesting and preserving hay crop silage.

Karto, A.A. 1995. Penggunaan kulit pisang sebagai pakan sapi PO. Prosiding Sain dan Teknologi Peternakan Balai Penelitian Ternak p. 126-131

Kim, J.G., Chung, E.S., Seo, S., Ham, J.S., Kang, W.S., Kim, D.A. 2001. Effects of Maturity at Harvest and Wilting Days on Quality of Round Baled Rye Silage. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 14(9): 1233-1237. doi:

Nurjana, D.J., Suharti, S., Suryahadi. 2016. Improvement of Napier Grass silage nutritive value by using inoculant and crude enzymes from Trichoderma reesei and its effect on in-vitro rumen fermentation. Media Peternakan 39(1): 46-52, doi: 10.5398/medpet.2016.39.1.46

Padam, B.S., Tin, H.S., Chye, F.Y. et al. 2014. Banana by-products: an under-utilized renewable food biomass with great potential. J Food Sci Technol 51: 3527. doi:10.1007/s13197-012-0861-2

Pareira, A., Maraschin, M. 2015. Banana (Musa spp) from peel to pulp: Ethnopharmacology, source of bioactive compounds and its relevance for human health. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 160: 149-163,

Sabutan, M. G. 1996. Banana (Musa paradisiaca sapientum) fruit peeling meal increased weight gain on Cobb broilers. Journal of Animal Husbandry and Agriculture: 26-29

Subramanian, P.R., Kadirvel, R., Viswanathan, K., Candrasekaran, D. 1998. In vitro studies and short-term feeding trial in lambs to evaluate plantain sheath (Musa sapientum) as a feed for ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 20: 343-348

Uchida, S., K.H. Kim and I.S. Yun. 1989. The effect of wilting on silage making from the viewpoint in connection with Monsoon Asia. A review. Asian-Aus. J. Anim 2 (1):43-49

Van Soest, P.J. 1963. Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. II. A rapid method for the determination of fiber and lignin. J.A.O.A.C. 50:50-55

Van Soest, P.J. and R.H. Wine. 1967. Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. IX. Determination of plant cell-wall constituents. J.A.O.A.C. 50:50-55

Weiss, B and J. Underwood, 2001. Silage additives In: (

Widjastuti, T., Hernawan, E. 2012. Utilizing of banana peel (Musa sapientum) in the ration and its influence on final body weight, percentage of carcass and abdominal fat on broilers under heat stress condition. Zootehnie 57, 104-109

Wina, E. 2001. Tanaman pisang sebagai pakan ternak. Wartazoa 11(2): 20-27

Woolford, M.K. 1984. The Silage Fermentation., Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY

Yokota, H., T. Okajima and M. Ohshima. 1994. Effect of harvest intervals on the chemical composition and nutritive value of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum) silages for goats. Asian-Aus. J. Anim 7 (4): 591-596


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Powered by OJS | Design by ThemeOJS