A 24-bp Indel (Insertion-Deletion) Polymorphism in Promoter Prolactin Gene

Sintje Lumatauw, Muh Affan Mu’in


Prolactin in chicken (cPRL) is a polypeptide hormone that plays a crucial role in incubation and brooding behavior. This hormone is coded by a gene that located at chromosome 2. The objective of this study was to investigate 24-bp indel polymorphism in promoter prolactin gene of Papua local chickens. A number of 60 DNA samples came from 60 Papua local chickens (25 males and 35 females) were used in this study.  PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) method with a pair of specific primer was applied and a specific DNA fragment with 130 and/or 154 bp contained 24-bp indel was successfully amplified. Results of electrophoresis run on 1.5 % agarose gel showed three genotypes: II, ID and DD with the frequency of 6,7%, 48.3% and 45% respectively. The frequency of I allele was 0.31 and D allele was 0.69. Results indicated  that the I allele frequency was medium in Papua local chickens population. Results therefore suggest that incubation behavior in hen population of Papua local chickens is easy to eliminate by increasing the I allele frequency in the population.

Full Text:



Au, W.L. & F.C. Leung. 2000. Genomic sequence of chicken prolactin gene. Departement of Zoology, The University of Hongkong, Pokfulam Road, Hongkong, SAR, China. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ entrez/viewer.fcgi?db-Nucleotide&dopt-GenBank [20 February 2014]. (Internet article)

Begli, H.E., S. Zerehdaran, S. Hassani, M.A. Abbasi, & A.K. Ahmadi. 2010. Polymorphism in prolactin and PEPCK-C genes and its association with economic traits in native fowl of Yazd province. Iranian Journal of Biotech., 8:172-177. (Journal)

Cui, J.X., H.L. Du, Y. Liang, & X.Q. Zhang. 2004. Polymorphism of chicken prolactin gene. Departement of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, College of Animal Science. South China Agricultural University, Wushan Street, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [24 Maret 2014]. (Internet article)

Cui, J.X., H.L. Du, Y. Liang, X.M. Deng, N. Li, & X.Q. Zhang. 2006. Association of polymorphism in the promoter region of chicken prolactin with egg produksi. Poultry Science, 85:26-31. (Journal)

Dhara, S.K. & M. Soller. 1999. Intragenic haplotypes in chicken prolactin in four diversed breeds. Hebrew Univ. of Jerusalem, Israel. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [18 March 2014]. (Internet article)

Dunn, I.C., G. McEwan, T. Ohkubo, P.J. Sharp, I.R. Paton, & D.W. Burt. 1998. Genetic mapping of the chicken prolactin receptor gene: a candidate gene for the control of broodiness. Br. Poul. Sci. 39: suppl.:S23-S24. (Journal)

Erixon, P., and B. Oxelman. 2008. Whole-gene positive selection, elevated synonymous substitution rates, duplication, and indel evolution of the chloroplast clpP1 gene. Public Library of Science. 3(1): e1386.

Gonzalez, K. D., K. A. Hill, K. Li, W. Li, W. A. Scaringe, J. Wang, D. Gu, & S. S. Sommer. 2007. Somatic microindels: analysis in mouse soma and comparison with the human germline. Human Mutation. 28:69-80. (Journal)

Haryani, E., 1999. Keragaman Morfologi dan Morfogenetik Ayam Kampung di Kabupaten Manokwari. Skripsi. Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Cenderawasih, Manokwari. (Book)

Jiang, R.S., G.Y. Xu, X.Q. Zhang, & N. Yang. 2005. Association of polymorphism for prolactin and prolactin receptor genes with broody traits in chickens. Poultry Science, 84:839-845. (Journal)

Kansaku, N. 2000. Genetic variation of chicken prolactin promoter. Database 2000. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ entrez/viewr.fcgi?db-nucleotide&dopt-Genbank& val [19 March 2014]. (Internet article)

Kondrashov, A. S. & I. B. Rogozin. 2004. Context of deletions and insertions in human coding sequences. Human Mutation. 23: 177-185. (Journal)

Lebang, D. 2002. Perbandingan Performans Produksi Telur Ayam Kampung di Dataran Tinggi Anggi dan Dataran Rendah Manokwari. Skripsi. Fakultas Pertanian, Peternakan dan Kehutanan, UNCEN, Manokwari. (Book)

Lewin, B. 1997. Trancription is catalysed by RNA polymerase. In: Genes VI. Oxford University Press, Inc, New York. pp. 289-334. (Book)

Liang, Y., J. Cui, G. Yang, F.C.C.Leung, & Z. Zhang. 2006. Review: polymorphism of 5’flanking region of chicken prolactin gene. Domest. Anim. Endoc., 30:1-16. (Journal)

Lotfi, E., S. Zerehdaran, M. Ahani, & E. Dehnavi. 2013. Genetic polymorphism in prolactin gene and its association with reproductive traits in Japanese quail (Coturnix-coturnix japonica). Poul. Sci. Journal 1(1):29-35. (Journal)

Lumatauw, S. A.L. Killian & A. Supriyantono. 1995. Identifikasi Sifat-sifat Morfogenetik Ayam Buras di Irian Jaya. Laporan penelitian, Faperta Uncen, Manokwari. (Book)

Miao, Y., D.W. Burt, I.R. Paton, P.J. Sharp, & I.C. Dunn. 1999. Mapping of the prolactin gene to chicken chromosome 2. Anim Genet. 30: 473. (Journal)

Mu’in, M.A. 1999. Analisis Potensi Genetik Beberapa Ukuran Tubuh Ayam Kampung. Jurnal Irian Jaya Agro Vol. 7 No. 2. Desember 2000. Hal. 38- 42. (Journal)

Muladno. 2002. Seputar Teknologi Rekayasa Genetika. Pustaka Wirausaha Muda dan USESE Foundation, Bogor. (Book)

Nei, M. & D. Kumar. 2000. Molecuar evolution and phylogenetics. Oxford University Press, New York. (Book)

Ogurtsov, A. Y., S. Sunyaev, & A. S. Kondrashov. 2004. Indel-based evolutionary distance and mouse-human divergence. Genome Research. 14: 1610-1615. (Journal)

Ohkubo, T.M., Tanaka & K. Nakashima. 1998. Cloning and characterization of chicken prolactin gene. Kagawa University, Departement of Agriculture 2393 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa, Japan. www.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov [25 Maret 2014]. (Internet article)

Rahayu, B.W.I. 1990. Pengkajian Beberapa Sifat Phenotip Ayam Kampung di Kota Manokwari. Skripsi. Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Cenderawasih, Manokwari. (Book)

Rashidi, H., G. Rahimi-Mianji, A. Farhadi, & M. Gholizadeh. 2012. Association of prolactin and prolactin receptor gene polymorphism with economic traits in breeder hens of indigenous chickens of Mazandaran province. Iranian Journal of Biotechnology, 10: 129-135. (Journal)

Sambrook, J., Fritcsh & T. Maniatis. 1989. Molecular Cloning Laboratory Manual. Second Edition, Vol. 3. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. USA. (Book)

Sharp, P.J., M.C. MacNamee, R.T. Talbot, R.J. Sterling, & T.R. Hall. 1984. Aspects of the neuroendocrine control of ovulation and broodiness in the domestic hen. J. Exp. Zool. 232.475-483. (Journal)

Shimada, K.I.H., K. Sato, H. Seo, & N. Matsui. 1991. Expression of prolactin gene in incubating hens. Reprod. Fertil.

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Powered by OJS | Design by ThemeOJS